類          別研究分析報告
分          類106資訊及通訊研究
專題/叢書名 因應5G新科技發展下之射頻器材管理機制委託研究
研 究 單 位 研究四所
合 作 單 位
研 究 人 員 程法彰,陳思豪,蔡孟珂,鄭人之,幸禹名,蕭清元,潘文心
出 版 日 期2020/12/31
頁          數506
關   鍵   字射頻器材,無線電器材,免許可射頻器材,Radio Frequency Equipment, Radio Equipment, License-Free Radio Frequency Equipment
摘          要 一、研究緣起
伴隨通訊傳播技術快速發展,5G、物聯網及人工智慧等科技產品日新月異,新興無線通訊產品數量倍增,為因應國際潮流及產業趨勢,從國家利益、產業發展及民眾需求等面向,探討法規鬆綁管制的挑戰,才能讓政府、民眾及企業能夠充分掌握數位機會,共同促進及蓬勃數位經濟之發展。

二、研究方法及過程
在5G新興射頻器材之運用趨勢下,蒐集分析主要國家之法規調整、因應策略及相關射頻器材規管法規,與分析管制政策與執行方式等項目。參考主要國家之法規調整及配套措施,提出我國電信管制射頻器材管理制度之修正建議及管理方向,在不影響電波管制秩序下,調和電信管制射頻器材之管制項目及管理規定。舉辦座談會,邀集利害關係人,比較說明外國與我國電信管制射頻器材之管理制度差異,並蒐集外界對我國電信管制射頻器材管理之修法建議。

三、重要發現
(一)射頻器材管制機關與新興射頻器材管制法規項目
國際上射頻器材主管與協力機關(或機構)上,多與海關、警察機關、消費者保護機構等多方協力合作。歐盟國家(含英國)則係有其區域制度與體制,得根據歐盟海關資料庫(TARIC)檢核進口產品,配合海關與市場稽查機關協力合作。澳洲係由主管機關澳洲通訊及媒體管理局(ACMA)以及官方成立之獨立機構電氣法規主管機關委員會(ERAC)協力,並由ERAC配合ACMA執行後市場稽核。國際上亦可見主管機關與線上購物平臺合作之案例,如德國、美國、英國。
新興射頻器材法規調整及監管策略方面,5G行動通訊設備的管制程度較高,仍如過去3G、4G時代需經過取得認證。藍牙等低功率射頻器材管制程度較低,除美國、韓國、中國大陸外,近年來國際主要國家認定如藍牙等低功率射頻器材風險程度較低的趨勢日漸增加,低功率射頻器材的管制有逐漸鬆綁趨勢。物聯網/車聯網相關射頻器材,因新興技術標準與設備多樣且面市時間不長,目前國際主要國家的管制視設備、應用而有所差異。
(二)射頻器材進口相關規定
研發測試之射頻器材規定方面,日本、新加坡管制強度高,無免經許可規定外,德國、英國、美國、澳洲、韓國、中國大陸與我國皆有研發測試之射頻器材免經進口許可之規定,美國與韓國又分別設有4,000與1,500單位之進口數量上限。部分國家針對功率極低、短距離或較無干擾疑慮之射頻器材,或有免經進口許可之規定,如英國、澳洲、新加坡、中國大陸。
(三)後市場管制機制與案例
後市場管制機制方面,國際上主要被動作法包含受理申訴/投訴、射頻器材執照效期更新制度、型號核准相關信用管理制度等;主動作法包括監控網路平臺交易、與海關合作、零售市場監管、資料庫隨機選取稽查、對電信認證機構要求、稽查具潛在干擾問題器材、針對常受到投訴之射頻器材進行調查等主動作法。罰則方面則據違規嚴重性、違規影響性、配合程度、違規原因、運作之可能影響、對消費者或公眾之風險程度等考量判斷,施以不同程度之措施。

四、主要建議事項
(一)主管機關協力機制
於網路購物平臺販售之射頻器材之規管上,若為國內網路購物平臺,可如美國、英國,與線上平臺合作,納為後市場稽核之一部分,而面對境外網路購物平臺,則得或以採合作方式,或於海關進口時進行抽驗之作法。
(二)新興射頻器材規管建議
5G行動終端部分,因屬執照頻段且不得干擾,規管上如過去3G、4G行動終端之作法,管制強度較高,皆須進行認證。針對物聯網與車聯網技術設備,本研究建議我國可先維持現狀,以待後續進一步的觀察。低功率射頻器材方面,需考量頻率干擾風險與電器安全,同時考量產業政策,如產業需求、技術成熟度,透過審驗方式與後市場稽查取得與互補效果。
(三)射頻器材進口相關規定
在我國後市場稽查仍有強化空間的前提下,本研究認為至少採取低度管制的符合性聲明(如自我符合性的聲明),應是目前可行的選項。研發測試免經進口許可已為大多數國家取得共識,本研究建議對於前述業者的意見回饋反應,可以在期間批次與數量上,與海關協調取得一致性作法,緩解產業的實務操作困擾,亦有助於提升產業的研發能量。
(四)進口許可證管理系統平臺建議
不論通傳會、海關進口資訊、業者內部,皆有查詢管理之需求,建議或可設立一管理系統平臺,業者可於平臺即時查詢其公司本身被列管之產品、核銷期限。通傳會亦得由管理系統平臺發文通知資料,而避免數量認知落差(申請數量與實際進口數量落差),並能動態且有效的掌握列管之產品現況。
(五)我國《應經核准之電信管制射頻器材》建議
站在《電信管理法》鬆綁思維,及面對5G物聯網時代多元多樣結合射頻之產品,研究團隊建議得適度鬆綁,促進產品流通。現階段可藉由電信管理法第44條應符合技術規範的要求,並藉由在申報作業管理辦法第1條增列法源依據(電信管理法第44條),並對於不符技術規範的受解除管制射頻器材,訂立處罰依據。
研究團隊建議《應經核准之電信管制射頻器材》不應限制通訊技術和產品,應以頻段、功率等技術規格訂定標準。我國法規主要參考 FCC 法規,但目前美國、歐盟對於藍牙產品均仍須測試並取得審驗證明,我國若欲放寬,建議應以完整系列之測試實驗,考量足夠之實驗變因、制定足夠力度之後市場管制機制,作為說服各界鬆綁政策之緣由。通傳會亦可建立一專業工作小組負責相關業務,或可與海關合作,以來源管理方式來解決網路販售之檢舉問題,進而減少取締成本沉重之問題。
(六)後市場管理機制建議
我國現有接獲檢舉干擾處理之被動後市場管制措施,惟主動稽查尚可依據國情訂定。針對不合規產品,則可根據情形採取輕重程度不同之罰則,以確保產品安全,防範電波干擾。主管機關於後市場以稽查方式維持秩序之同時,得藉由加強相關政策於消費者市場之宣導,除提升消費者安全意識外,亦可讓消費者瞭解政府為保障消費者權益所執行之應對措施。

A. Motivation
With the rapid development of communication technology, 5G, Internet of Things and artificial intelligence are changing day by day, and the number of emerging wireless communication products has doubled. In response to international trends and industrial trends, taking the deregulation of laws and regulations from the perspective of national interests, industrial development, and public needs into consideration, help the government, the public and enterprises fully grasp the digital opportunities, jointly promote, and flourish the development of the digital economy.

B. Method and Process
Under the trend of 5G emerging radio frequency equipment, the research team collect and analyze the regulatory adjustments, response strategies and related radio-frequency devices regulations of major countries, and analyze control policies and implementation methods. With reference to the regulatory adjustments and supporting measures of major countries, the research team propose amendments and management directions for the management system of Taiwan's controlled telecommunications radio-frequency devices, and harmonize the controlled substances and management regulations of controlled telecommunications radio-frequency devices without affecting the order of radio control. The research team held symposiums, inviting interested parties to compare and explain the differences in the management system of controlled telecommunications radio-frequency devices in foreign countries and Taiwan, and collect suggestions on the revision of the regulations of controlled telecommunications radio-frequency devices in Taiwan.

C. Crucial Discovery
a. Radio-Frequency Devices Regulatory Authority and Emerging Controlled Radio-Frequency Devices Regulation
Internationally, radio-frequency devices competent and cooperating agencies often cooperate with customs, police, consumer protection institutions and other parties. European Union countries (including the United Kingdom) have their own regional systems and systems, which can check imported products according to the Integrated Tariff of the European Union (TARIC) and cooperate with customs and market inspection agencies. Australia is coordinated by the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA), the competent authority, and the Electrical Regulatory Authorities Council (ERAC), an officially established independent agency, and ERAC cooperates with ACMA to perform post-market surveillances. Internationally, there are also examples of cooperation between competent authorities and online shopping platforms, such as Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom.
In terms of regulatory adjustments and regulatory strategies for emerging radio-frequency devices, the regulation of 5G wireless telecommunications terminal equipments is the same as 3G and 4G, remaining high control intensity, and certification is required. Low-power RF devices such as Bluetooth keeps light touch. Except for the United States, South Korea, and Mainland China, in recent years, low-power RF devices such as Bluetooth and other low-power RF devices have been identified as lower risk in major countries, and are gradually deregulated. Internet of Things or Vehicle-to-everything relevant radio-frequency devices, due to the variety of emerging technology standards and equipment and just in circulation, the current regulations in major countries vary depending on the equipment and application.
b. Regulations on Import of the Radio-Frequency Devices
Regarding the regulations on RF devices for R&D and testing, Japan and Singapore have high regulatory strengths and no license exemption. Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, South Korea, Mainland China and Taiwan all have regulations on RF devices for R&D and testing that are exempt from import permits. The U.S. and South Korea have set import quotas of 4,000 and 1,500 units respectively. Some countries, such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Singapore, and Mainland China, have regulations on RF devices with extremely low power, short distances, or less interference concerns.
c. Post-Market Control Mechanism and Cases
In terms of post-market control mechanisms, the main international actions include dealing with appeals or complaints, radio-frequency devices license renewal system, model approval-related credit management systems, etc. The active actions include monitoring online platform transactions, cooperation with customs, retail market supervision, database randomly audits, requirements of telecommunications certification bodies, inspection of devices which exist potential interference problems, and investigation of RF devices frequently complained. In terms of penalties, different levels of measures will be implemented according to the severity of the violation, the impact of the violation, the degree of cooperation, the reason for the violation, the possible impact of the operation, and the degree of risk to consumers or the public.

D. Main Suggestions
a. Coordination Mechanism of Competent Authorities
Regarding the regulation of radio frequency devices sold on online shopping platforms, if it is a domestic online shopping platform, the research team suggest following the United States and the United Kingdom, cooperating with online platforms to perform the post-market surveillance. While facing overseas online shopping platforms, it is suggest adopting a cooperative approach or conducting random inspections as customs import.
b. Emerging RF Devices Regulations
Due to the licensed frequency band and no radio wave interference, the regulation of 5G wireless telecommunications terminal equipments is the same as 3G and 4G, remaining high control intensity, and certification is required. Regarding the Internet of Things and Internet of Vehicles technology and equipment, this research suggests that Taiwan can maintain the status quo for further observations. For low-power radio-frequency devices, it is necessary to consider the risk of frequency interference and electrical safety, as well as industrial policies, such as industrial demand and technological maturity, to achieve complementary effects through verification methods and post-market surveillance.
c. Radio-Frequency Devices Import Regulations
Under the premise that there is still room for strengthening post-market surveillance in Taiwan, this study believes that at least a light touch declaration of conformity should be a feasible option at present. With the research and development exemption from import permits has reached a consensus for most countries, it is suggesting that in response to the feedback from the industry players, the batches and quantities during the period can be coordinated with the customs to achieve consistent practices, to alleviate the industry’s practical operation obstacles, and boost the R&D energy of the industry.
d. Import License Management System Platform
Regardless of National Communications Commission (NCC), customs import information, or operators, there is a need for inquiries and management. It is recommended that a management system platform be set up where the business can inquire about the operator's own controlled telecommunications radio-frequency devices and the verification period in real time. NCC can also be notified by the management system platform to avoid the gap in quantity awareness (the gap between the number of applications and the actual import quantity), and can dynamically and effectively grasp the current status of the controlled telecommunications radio-frequency devices.
e. Items of Controlled Telecommunications Radio-frequency Devices
Standing on the deregulation thinking of the Telecommunication Management Act, and facing the diverse products that combine radio-frequency in the 5G Internet of Things era, the research team recommends moderate light touch to promote product circulation. At this stage, it is possible to use Article 44 of the Telecommunications Management Act to meet the requirements of the technical specifications, and to add the source of the law to the Article 1 of the Administrative Regulations on Manufacturing, Import and Report of the Controlled Telecommunications Radio-Frequency Devices, and establish a punishment basis for the non-compliant radio-frequency devices.
The research team suggested that the “Items of Controlled Telecommunications Radio-frequency Devices” should not restrict communication technology and products, and should set standards based on technical specifications such as frequency bands and power. Taiwan's regulations mainly refer to FCC regulations, but currently the United States and the European Union still need to test and obtain certification for Bluetooth products. If Taiwan decides to begin light touch, it is recommended to use a complete series of test experiments, considering sufficient experimental variables, and formulate sufficient strength post-market control mechanism, to serve as a reason to persuade all walks of life to loosen the policy. NCC can also establish a professional working group to be responsible for related businesses, or cooperate with the customs to solve the problem of reporting online sales by means of source management, thereby reducing the problem of heavy banning costs.
f. Post-Market Management Mechanism
Taiwan currently has passive post-market control measures for interference reports handling, but active inspections can still be determined based on national conditions. For non-compliant products, different levels of penalties can be adopted according to the situation to ensure product safety and prevent radio interference. While maintaining order in the post-market through surveillances, the competent authority may strengthen the promotion of relevant policies in the consumer market to enhance consumer safety awareness, and consumers can also understand the government’s measures for consumer rights protection.
目          錄 第一章  研究主旨 1
第一節 研究動機與目的 1
第二節 工作項目 2

第二章  主要國家射頻器材管制機關與  新興射頻器材管制法規項目 5
第一節 德國 5
第二節 英國 16
第三節 美國 27
第四節 澳洲 37
第五節 日本 51
第六節 韓國 64
第七節 新加坡 70
第八節 中國大陸 83
第九節 我國 93
第十節 小結 98

第三章  主要國家射頻器材進口管制規定 117
第一節 德國 117
第二節 英國 123
第三節 美國 130
第四節 澳洲 139
第五節 日本 146
第六節 韓國 151
第七節 新加坡 157
第八節 中國大陸 163
第九節 我國 172
第十節 小結 176

第四章  主要國家後市場管制機制與案例 197
第一節 德國 197
第二節 英國 205
第三節 美國 208
第四節 澳洲 213
第五節 日本 227
第六節 韓國 233
第七節 新加坡 235
第八節 中國大陸 239
第九節 我國 247
第十節 小結 251

第五章  結論建議 261
第一節 主管機關協力機制建議 261
第二節 新興射頻器材規管建議 262
第三節 射頻器材免經驗證之進口許可各國相關規定與我國現況
建議 267
第四節 我國研發、測試與展示射頻器材進口相關實務建議 269
第五節 進口許可證管理系統平臺建議 270
第六節 應經核准之電信管制射頻器材其他補充說明(完全解除
管制的後市場處罰稽查與實證測試) 271
第七節 後市場管理機制建議 276

中外文對照表 283

參考資料 299

附錄一 訪談大綱 315
附錄二 華碩電腦訪談紀錄 327
附錄三 台達電訪談紀錄 333
附錄四 藍牙技術聯盟訪談紀錄 335
附錄五 財團法人全國認證基金會訪談紀錄 341
附錄六 電信管制射頻器材管理制度座談會  (場次一) 349
附錄七 電信管制射頻器材管理制度座談會  (場次二) 363
附錄八 10毫瓦以下藍牙等低功率射頻電機干擾評估研究(執行
單位:國立成功大學電信管理研究所;主持人:陳文字教授;
參與人員:林青青、王紫瑜) 379
附錄九 ISM  BAND設備間互相干擾對傳輸速率之影響測試(執行
單位:國立成功大學電信管理研究所;主持人:陳文字教授;
參與人員:林青青、王紫瑜) 443
附錄十 期末審查會議簡報 447
附錄十一 期中報告審查委員意見回覆表 461
附錄十二 期末報告審查委員意見回覆表 475
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