類          別研究分析報告
分          類104資源、能源及環境研究
專題/叢書名 因應再生能源之電價及需量反應改革策略研究
研 究 單 位 研究五所
合 作 單 位
研 究 人 員 楊豐碩,陳詩豪,詹穎儒,古文潔,鄭伊秀
出 版 日 期2021/7/31
頁          數316
關   鍵   字電價方案,需量反應,再生能源發展,鴨子曲線,電力市場,Electricity Tariff, Demand Response, Variable Renewable Energy, Duck Curve, Electric Power Market
摘          要 隨著國際間能源轉型之發展潮流,將使未來再生能源建置容量將逐步提升,我國能源轉型政策規劃亦不自外於此一趨勢,而「2025年再生能源占比成長至20%」更為其中最關鍵的政策目標。然而,隨著再生能源發電持續併入電力系統,使發電受到氣候影響增加且穩定性預測更趨困難,亦會改變既有的電力負載曲線。其中淨負載(扣除變動性再生能源發電之負載曲線)將逐漸形成鴨子曲線,造成日中負載過低及傍晚負載急升之調度困難,並對電價成本、電價結構產生影響。為因應此一變化趨勢,國外電業已逐步調整時間電價之尖、離峰時間帶,以引導用戶電能使用。

預期未來再生能源發電成本將逐年下降,將與台電公司累進電價和時間電價方案產生競爭,對電費收入及費率結構產生影響,基此,配合再生能源發展趨勢調整我國累進電價與時間電價制度,亦有其必要性。在因應我國再生能源滲透率期程下,應及早規劃短、中、長期之改革策略,使電力資源應用更為合理化與多樣化成為重要的目標及策略,而使我國未來之電價及需量反應政策,得以滿足電力系統需求及因應市場開放需要。

基於以上課題,本研究將參考處於不同再生能源發展階段之國外電業,研討國際間需求面管理相關推動方向,包括因應再生能源之影響下,電價與需量反應之改革方向與相關配套,而後規劃我國未來之需求面管理措施改革策略。針對現有方案,提出台電公司現行累進電價、時間電價與需量反應方案之修正方向,以及參考國際主要採用之效評估檢測方法,計算方案調整後之效益,並由評估結果修正與精進方案調整策略。此外,本研究亦針對金門地區負載特性,設計符合系統需要之時間電價及需量反應方案,將對於後續電價與需量反應方案修正產生莫大助益。

According to the energy transition policy in Taiwan, renewable power will account for 20 percent of total electricity generation by 2025, which is the most important policy target, therefore, renewable power generation capacity is expected to increase gradually. As the renewable energy generation is increasingly introduced to the Grid, it will change the shape of load duration curve. The net load curve (the difference between electricity demand and the amount of variable renewable resources) will be becoming to the duck shape, and make the system dispatch more difficult as well as affect the electricity cost and tariff structure. Therefore, there are some oversea power companies have adjusted the TOU price gap and time zone between peak and off-peak, to guide the customs behavior of the power users.

It is expected that the cost of renewable energy generation will decrease year by year in the future, compete with the current progressive electricity tariff and TOU scheme of Taiwan Power Company (TPC), and impact the electricity revenue and rate structure. In response to the penetrating progress of Taiwan's renewable energy, the TPC should plan short, medium and long-term reform strategies earlier, so that the application of power resources can become more sensible and diversifed, and make the future electricity tariff scheme and demand response program meet the needs of the power system and market opening.
Based on the above issues, this study will refer to the foreign electric power company in different stages of renewable energy development, and discuss the related direction of international demand-side management measures, including in response to the impact of renewable energy, electricity tariff and demand response reform direction and related support, and then plan our future reform strategy on demand-side management measures. In view of the existing scheme, this study will propose the revision direction of the current TPC’s progressive electricity tariff, TOU scheme and demand response programs, and the cost-effectiveness of the scheme adjustment will be calculated by reference to the five main cost-benefit model testing methods mainly used in the international power companies, and the scheme will be revised and refined by the evaluation results.

Meanwhile, this study will also survey the load pattern and design electricity tariff, TOU scheme and demand response programs particularly for the load characteristics in Kinmen district in line with the needs of the system, and will be of great benefit to the subsequent electricity tariff, TOU and demand response scheme revision.
目          錄 壹、計畫背景與目標 1
一、研究背景與目標 1
二、預期成效 2
三、國內外相關研究之進展現況 2

貳、計畫執行情形 7
一、再生能源發電對系統負載之影響 10
二、國外電業因應再生能源之電價及需量反應調整作法研析 18
三、研擬我國因應再生能源之電價及需量反應改革策略與相關配套 100
四、研析因應能源結構改變之電價成本分攤與訂價方式 148
五、配合計畫需求召開專家諮詢會議 178
六、電價與需量反應方案調整對利害關係人的影響及成效分析 204
七、研擬相關政策推動說帖與舉辦說明會 218
八、研擬因應金門地區負載型態及系統需要之時間電價及需量反應方案 232
九、結論與建議 270

參考文獻 272

附錄目錄
(一)需量反應成本效益資料 1
(二)金門成本資料取得 3
(三)金門需量反應方案成本分析 6
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