類          別研究分析報告
分          類104資源、能源及環境研究
專題/叢書名 整合分散式能源之虛擬電廠推動策略與模式示範研究
研 究 單 位 研究五所
合 作 單 位
研 究 人 員 楊豐碩,陳詩豪,林泓翰,陳彥豪,盧思穎,詹穎儒,鄭伊秀
出 版 日 期2022/7/31
頁          數366
關   鍵   字虛擬電廠,分散式能源,分散式能源管理系統,公用售電業,Virtual Power Plant, Distributed Energy, Distributed Energy Resource Management System, Public Retail Electric Provider
摘          要 時值我國能源轉型之際,可預期未來數年內將有大量分散式能源(distributed energy resources, DER)進入電網,此將對電力系統操作帶來挑戰。而隨著全球發展潔淨能源之趨勢,分散式能源在世界各國電網及電力市場高度滲透,國際上已逐漸聚焦於虛擬電廠(virtual power plant, VPP)之發展,以尋求可同時追求低碳及維持系統運行穩定之最佳方案。虛擬電廠過去僅透過卸除用戶負載維護電網穩定性(VPP 1.0),發展至現今可整合分散式發電設備、再生能源、儲能系統及需求端管理等功能(VPP 2.0),經由集中控制與調度,虛擬電廠能夠有效提升能源使用效率。

隨著綠能、儲能系統及需量反應等相關技術發展,我國電力產業已逐漸累積發展VPP2.0之能量,具備整合資源並發展創新營運模式之潛力,虛擬電廠之推動符合國際電業潮流,並可作為因應再生能源間歇性之解方。然而,在電業法的限制下,目前僅台電公司、再生能源發電業及再生能源售電業能夠合法售電,面對法規限制、技術發展及機制設計等多重角力,本研究旨在透過虛擬電廠之試驗研究,以釐清虛擬電廠於實務上之運作程序,盼能作為我國未來整合分散式能源技術之參考。本研究之內容包含虛擬電廠之適法性研析、商業模式研擬、機制與配套措施建立、電力市場試驗、推動策略規劃,以及蒐集國外分散式能源管理系統之資訊,以供國內未來完善系統建置作為參考。最後,針對本研究所實施之虛擬電廠試驗,將以其試驗結果進行成本效益分析,並研提適合台電公司短、中、長期推動虛擬電廠發展之策略規劃,以利及早預為因應日後分散式能源增加之趨勢。

At the time of Taiwan's energy transition, it is expected that a large number of distributed energy resources (DER) will be connected to the grid in the next few years, which will bring challenges to the operation of the power system. In addition, with the global development of clean energy, distributed energy is highly infiltrated in power grids and electricity markets around the world. Some countries have gradually focused on the development of virtual power plants (VPPs) in order to seek the best solution of low carbon and stable system operation. In the past, VPPs only maintained grid stability by reducing users’ load (VPP 1.0), and now they can integrate distributed power generations, renewable energy, energy storage systems, and demand-side management (VPP 2.0).

With the development of power technologies such as renewable energy, energy storage systems, and demand response, Taiwan’s power industry has gradually accumulated the capability for the development of VPP 2.0, which has the potential to integrate resources and develop innovative business models. The promotion of VPPs is in line with the trend of the international electricity industry and can be used as a solution to the nature of variable renewable energy. However, under the restrictions of the Electricity Law, currently only Taiwan Power Company, the Renewable-Energy-Based Electricity Generating Enterprises and the Electricity Retailing Enterprises can legally sell electricity. Under multiple struggles such as regulatory restrictions, technological development, and mechanism design, this study aims to clarify the operation procedures of VPPs through experimental research on VPPSs, hoping to serve as a reference for Taiwan's technologies of integrating distributed energy in the future. The content of this study includes the research on the legitimacy and analysis the content of VPPs, developing the business model, establishment of mechanisms and supporting measures, power market trials, promotion of strategic planning, and collection of information on distributed energy resource management system (DERMS) in foreign countries. Finally, the cost-benefit analysis will be presented based on the results of trials, and a short-, medium-, and long-term VPP promotion strategy suitable for Taiwan Power Company will be proposed, so as to respond to the trend of increasing distributed energy in the future.
目          錄 壹、緒論 1
一、研究背景與目標 1
二、預期成效 3
三、國內外相關研究之進展現況 4

貳、計畫執行情形 10
一、蒐集國外虛擬電廠參與電力市場之機制與配套 14
二、研析我國虛擬電廠進入電力市場之機制與配套 70
三、我國推動虛擬電廠之適法性探討 111
四、國外分散式電源管理系統借鏡分析 160
五、我國虛擬電廠試行平台規劃與建置 195
六、執行公用電業虛擬電廠試驗 218
七、進行虛擬電廠試驗計畫成效分析 273
八、  研提我國虛擬電廠之短中長期推動策略 298

參、結論與建議 325

肆、參考文獻 329

附件一    「整合分散式能源之虛擬電廠試驗方案」合作契約書
附件二    「虛擬電廠試驗方案」合作備忘錄
附件三    VPP  客製化資料上傳API
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