類          別研究分析報告
分          類106資訊及通訊研究
專題/叢書名 因應新興科技之市場商業模式演進與相關監理架構研析委託研究採購案
研 究 單 位 研究四所
合 作 單 位
研 究 人 員 劉柏立,陳思豪,鍾銘泰,曾俊洲,彭思遠,陳萱,黃世蕙,吳怡仲,謝岱珉,劉元達,徐千惠,汪瑤葳,許龍田
出 版 日 期2022/12/31
頁          數626
關   鍵   字新興科技,5G商業模式,垂直應用,電信監理政策,Key words: emerging technologies, 5G business models, vertical applications, telecom regulatory policies
摘          要 隨著5G技術標準確立與各國5G服務商轉,國際電信業者利用5G特性,強調電信業者與非電信業者跨領域合作,推出與4G不同的新型態商業模式。本計畫旨在研究國際間潛在及成功之5G商業模式、其商業模式帶動產業生態系發展、各國商業模式所引發之監理法制創新及挑戰等議題,並研提我國相關法規調適及監理政策建議,以推動我國通訊傳播產業穩健發展。本研究採取文獻分析、個案分析、制度比較等方法,梳理各國主管機關對5G新型態的商業模式調適該國法規與監理政策,並透過專家座談會廣納專家學者之重要見解,研提我國新興數位科技監理政策建議,提供主管機關參考。

歸納研究發現如下:
在國際衛星通信發展趨勢議題,國際間積極發展低軌衛星系統,衛星通訊正蓬勃發展;鑒於GSO與LEO各具優勢,形成互補關係,太空聯合組網趨勢逐漸形成;國際低軌衛星業者與行動通訊業者合作發展出新的商業模式;低軌衛星通訊興盛,帶動衛星物聯網發展;衛星通訊開放新的頻段;地面網路與衛星通訊融合趨勢。

在新興科技與行動寬頻應用議題,各國5G應用情境多數應用處於試驗階段;5G帶來新的商業模式,B2X及B2B2X的服務策略將加速發展;5G於智慧城市的應用,將有效提升公共事務效率與民眾生活品質;電信業者於5G應用模式擔任角色,逐漸從網路開發者轉為網路服務促成者。

在行動寬頻網路與新興數位科技應用推動與監理議題方面,數據已躍升為國家之戰略資產,我國政府也正視資料經濟的影響力;合併、相互投資等議題,各國主管機關在審查電信事業合併案時,審查重點在於頻譜資源、市場競爭與消費者權益保護,各國主管機關依各合併案之獨特性,考量附帶條件。

綜合本研究分析結果,提出短中期與長期建議。短中期建議包含:低軌衛星用戶終端執照可採美國blanket license方式核發執照;政府擬開放低軌衛星採概念驗證(PoC)方式參進我國市場,可參考日本KDDI與SpaceX的合作模式。政府推動5G創新應用,應持續協助業者佈建5G基礎設施政策,擴大補助力度;在進行智慧醫療創新部分受限於《醫師法》,為改善偏鄉醫療品質,需進行法規調適;塑造5G專網典範案例以彰顯專網之具體效益,帶動5G專網應用示範效果。調適我國《個人資料保護法》或制定數據隱私專法,以維護個資隱私;國際低軌衛星業者參進我國市場,應調適資料國際傳輸管制法規。建議掌握國際電信事業合併案例,並參考我國國情,研議適宜之附帶條件;調適現有的頻譜資源管制法規,以符合市場實際需要;電信合併案審查應考量衡平市場公平競爭與保障消費者權益;建立電信事業合併案承諾事項之追蹤管控機制。促成增加特定弱勢族群及一般用戶多元的資費優惠方案,以保障弱勢群體的基本通訊需求;主管機關應持續觀察未來電信業者之資費水準。建議5G新興商業模式之跨業合作,由合作契約規範雙方權利及義務關係。本研究提出長期建議包含:持續追蹤各國主管機關對低軌衛星未來技術可能發展衛星間鏈路,或閘道器設置於境外時之規管方式;持續觀察國際對於新興數位服務之市場界定與競爭規管作法變化;建議我國政府成立個人資料保護獨立監理機關,主責個人資料保護法規制定與執行。

With the establishment of 5G technical standards and the launch of 5G commercial services in various countries, international telecom operators have used the features of 5G to emphasize cross-field cooperation between telecom operators and non-telecom operators, and launched a new business model which is different from 4G.
This project aims to study the potential and successful 5G business models around the globe, the development of the industrial ecosystem driven by the business models, and the regulatory and legal innovations and challenges arising from the business models, and to propose the adaptation and regulatory framework for the relevant regulatory environment so as to promote the steady development of the communications industry in Taiwan.

1.Analysis of the development trend of international satellite communications
In view of the active development of low earth orbit (LEO) satellite constellations, booming satellite communication, and geostationary satellites (GSO) and LEO with their own advantage, international satellite operators have adopted strategic alliances, joint cooperation, or even mergers to accelerate cross-satellite constellations, which leads to the gradual formation of cross-orbit space network, in order to face the strong challenge of SpaceX's Starlink constellations.
Currently, there are already a number of collaboration cases between satellite operators and telecom operators. For example, SpaceX and KDDI have partnered to use the Starlink network as a backhaul network for terrestrial networks to improve coverage in remote areas of Japan. T-Mobile and SpaceX announced a new program called "Coverage Above and Beyond", which will use T-Mobile's nationwide medium-band spectrum to provide subscribers with complete coverage via Starlink satellites, leveraging satellite-to-cellular service technology.

2.Analysis of the current status of international mobile broadband development
Each competent authority formulates the goal of 5G construction, while telecom operators build 5G network, promoting the development of a new business model. Besides providing existing telecommunications services, telecom operators will also benefit from expanding the scope of enterprise services and total solutions, including B2X and B2B2X business models.
At this stage, the main development is B2B. Meanwhile, the use cases in countries are mostly in the fields of smart factories, smart offices, and smart ports, etc. The application of 5G in smart cities will improve the efficiency of public affairs and the quality of lives. In terms of B2C services, most are concentrated on eMBB, most of which are provided for free to improve 5G users’ interest, such as sports rebroadcast, smart entertainment, etc. The application field of B2B2X is mainly in the fields where telecom operators collaborate with emerging technology industries like IoT, AI, Big Data, i.e., high value-added business activities, including smart computer games, smart education, smart traveling, etc.
Most of the 5G applications are trial and are actively developed mainly in vertical applications. The vertical applications of 5G in benchmarking countries are different, so are their developing industries and services provided. In principle, enterprises (e.g., factories, hospitals) and network providers (e.g., telecom operators, SIs) are to collaborate on trial or R&D new technologies, and 5G private network construction and application content are supported by national policies.
In the comparison of the way that telecom operator and system integrator build 5G private network, the categorizing method is based on frequency band, 5G equipment, information security, upstream and downstream transmission, and investment costs. The main commercial frequency band for telecom operators is 3.5GHz or 28GHz, while system integrators are using 3.7-3.8GHz or 4.8-4.9GHz experimental frequency bands. Telecom operators primarily utilize 5G equipment of international providers to have quality ensured, while system integrators can control information security risks and have more flexibility in adjusting upstream and downstream transmission; while telecom operators have low initial investment costs, system integrators have higher initial investment costs, but they can master maintenance technologies in the long run.

3.Mobile broadband and emerging digital technology applications and business models
5G network is a key infrastructure that needs to be combined with emerging digital technologies such as AI, IoT, big data, wearable devices, machine vision, etc. Based on the three characteristics of 5G, i.e., large bandwidth, large connection and low latency, applications that have not been achieved in past generations of mobile communications technology can be realized with the support of 5G network.
The sales model for 5G private network applications can be divided into two models: the buy-out model and the lease model. The buy-out model is suitable for large enterprises with sufficient capital and will pay a higher initial fee to construct a private network. Lease model refers to the supply of total solution of the telecommunications industry or system integrator. It is more suitable for small-scale enterprises or those with less capital.
Research on use cases shows that telecom operators are gradually becoming network enablers working with 5G and IoT ecosystem service providers to integrate digital functions into their operations. Telecom operators can further become network creators to provide innovative digital platform infrastructure services.

4.Mobile Broadband Network and Emerging Digital Technology Application Promotion and Supervision Policy
The combined development of Mobile broadband network and emerging digital technology will have great shock to the existing supervision framework and regulations. The prevailing of new communication technology and digital platforms (such as Line, Facebook Messenger, etc.) which have caused a significant decline in domestic telecom operators revenue and accelerated the merger of telecom operators. In the 5G era, the development trend of domestic and international telecom industry will further promote the mergers among telecom operators. Ranked by the subscribers, the telecom operators in Taiwan are Chunghwa, Taiwan Mobile, FarEasTone, T Star, and GT. Taiwan Mobile and T Star, Far EasTone and GT have successively announced their merger events, and Taiwan’s telecom market may return to the situation of the top three. The two cases are being heard by the NCC and the FTC.
In terms of data application and data governance, various governments have upgraded their data economic policies to national strategies, such as Germany’s “Digital Strategy 2025”, the U.S. “Federal Data Strategy 2020 Action Plan”, and the U.K. “National Data Strategy”. On the one hand, the government strengthens data policies, releases the value of data, enhances the overall competitiveness of the country, and transforms into a digital government; on the other hand, enterprises must draw support from the easing of regulations, deepen data application at all levels, and provide customized product services. Through policy promotion and regulation adjustment, the governments of various countries release the capacity of “data” to create the development of the data economy.
目          錄 第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究緣起與目的 1
第二節 研究方法與步驟 3
第三節 研究工作項目 6
第四節 研究進度 9
第五節 預期成果 11

第二章 國際衛星通信發展趨勢分析 12
第一節 國際同步、非同步衛星發展趨勢 12
第二節 美國 19
第三節 英國 26
第四節 澳洲 31
第五節 德國 35
第六節 日本 39
第七節 韓國 44
第八節 中國大陸 50
第九節 我國 54
第十節 小結 57

第三章 國際行動寬頻發展現況分析 73
第一節 美國 73
第二節 英國 78
第三節 德國 83
第四節 芬蘭 88
第五節 日本 93
第六節 韓國 97
第七節 新加坡 101
第八節 中國大陸 107
第九節 我國 111
第十節 小結 116

第四章 行動寬頻與新興數位科技之應用和商業模式 127
第一節 行動寬頻與新興數位科技應用發展 127
第二節 市場商業模式與應用案例 145
第三節 各類應用之銷售與建置方式 162
第四節 小結 164

第五章 行動寬頻網路與新興數位科技應用推動與監理政策 168
第一節 促進產業與創新商業模式發展之管制調整趨勢 168
第二節 合併、相互投資、頻率轉讓或頻率釋出之管制措施 183
第三節 行動寬頻網路、衛星通信結合新興數位科技之衍生
通訊傳播相關監理議題 270
第四節 小結 320

第六章 專家座談會意見研析 343
第一節 第一次專家座談會時間與議程 343
第二節 第一次座談會意見彙整 344
第三節 第一次座談會會議摘要 354
第四節 第二次專家座談會時間與議程 366
第五節 第二次座談會意見彙整 367
第六節 第二次座談會會議摘要 377

第七章 研究發現與建議 387
第一節 研究發現 387
第二節 建議 402

附錄 416
附錄一 第一次專家座談會 416
附錄二 第二次專家座談會 444
附錄三 第一次(4月)工作會議簡報 466
附錄四 第二次(5月)工作會議簡報 475
附錄五 第三次(6月)工作會議簡報 480
附錄六 第四次(7月)工作會議簡報 489
附錄七 第五次(8月)工作會議簡報 499
附錄八 第六次(10月)工作會議簡報 506
附錄九 第七次(11月)工作會議簡報 512
附錄十 期中報告審查意見之修正對照表 518
附錄十一 期末報告審查意見之修正對照表 534
附錄十二 諮詢與其他相關協助事項 546

參考書目 548

中英文對照表 586
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